“The Second Amendment is a doomsday provision, one designed for those exceptionally rare circumstances where all other rights have failed — where the government refuses to stand for reelection and silences those who protest; where courts have lost the courage to oppose, or can find no one to enforce their decrees. However improbable these contingencies may seem today, facing them unprepared is a mistake a free people get to make only once.” — Chief Justice Alex Kozinski, US 9th Circuit Court, 2003
“Perhaps most importantly, the Second Amendment’s purposes strongly support the theory of an individual right to “keep and bear” arms. The Second Amendment serves at least the following two key purposes: (1) to protect against external threats of invasion; and (2) to guard against the internal threat that our republic could degenerate to tyranny. n7 The purpose of militia to oppose external threat and preserve the national security is apparent from the face of the Second Amendment. The purpose of militia to check potential tyranny of a national government is implicit and is documented by contemporaneous parallel provisions of state constitutions.” Nordyke v. King, No. 99-17551, UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE NINTH CIRCUIT, GOULD, Circuit Judge, Specially Concurring.